The water supply system of apartments and houses these days lacks something without a domestic water pump, and it is not possible to increase the water pressure without it.
There are different types of water pumps in the market with different prices, which makes it a bit difficult to choose. Various factors such as the number of floors in the building, the quality of water pressure in the area, and the amount of water consumed by each unit influence the correct choice. In this article, we will help you choose a water pump for your home that has the best quality and the longest life.
How many types of water pumps are there and what are their uses
The water pump can be divided into different types based on application, capacity, and operation method, but the most used ones are in three groups: jet, ambient and centrifugal. Pumps are used for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes. Household pumps are also divided into these three main parts.
Environmental domestic pumps have a turbine pump and were designed in such a way that they increase the pressure of low-flow water to an acceptable level. The impeller of these pumps has many vanes that rotate inside a certain channel and increase the water pressure with their energy.
Jet pumps are self-priming, and for this reason, the presence of some water in the air does not cause a problem for their operation. These household pumps cover a height slightly lower than the pump surface and have high suction. Centrifugal pumps, which are the most famous and popular, increase water pressure with the help of centrifugal force. The simplicity of the structure of these pumps means that they do not have high maintenance costs, and their repair is also simple. The propellers of this device are limited and may be one or more, the rapid rotation of these propellers and blades provides the energy required by the device.
The impellers of these pumps have different types and each one will have different efficiency based on its type of operation.
What should be considered when choosing a home water pump?
Temperature, viscosity, dissolved in water, solid particles that may be present in water, as well as water height affect the performance of the device selection. The chemical characteristics and the nature of the water should also be considered when choosing a pump.
The submersible pump, electric motor, and electric cable of household water pumps should be suitable and suitable for the specific use we expect from them. The pump catalog mentions the height and water flow rate of the device, and with a simple study, you can choose the right device. The head height, efficiency, and power of the water pump are also very important and should be chosen carefully.
The brand from which you buy the water pump should be chosen correctly, currently, there are various domestic and foreign brands available in the market. Each of these brand names has its own history and became famous for producing a certain type of home pump.
What do the terms used about the water pump mean?
Different information is written on the home water pump package and the specifications of online stores, here we will introduce them so that you can choose better.
- Maximum flow rate: This term means maximum water flow and should be taken into consideration before choosing any home water pump. Water capacity is very important when transferring water and is usually calculated in liters per minute, sometimes cubic meters are considered.
- Power: The power of the pump is the power that this device can produce and is transmitted mechanically. This feature is measured in terms of steam and kilowatts. The power of the pump transfers mechanical energy to the container, that’s why you have to choose the right power.
- Maximum head: This characteristic, which is also known as the maximum height of the pump, is very important in choosing home pumps. In fact, this feature shows the pump is able to pump water from zero point to the maximum height.
The electronic specifications of the device include the required voltage, whether it is three-phase or single-phase, and the amperage consumption of the device, which must be selected according to the city electricity. Household pumps must work with 220V electricity and are usually single-phase, Iranian water pumps are produced according to the country’s electricity, but if you are looking for foreign brands, you should know that Iran’s electricity is 50Hz and the pump you buy must be able to work with it. There is a nameplate on all water pumps where you can easily read these specifications.
The important factors in installing a household water pump suitable for all types of buildings
One of the problems that exist in the urban water supply system and water consumption of residential and office buildings and places is regulating the water pressure inside the pipes. Due to the fact that the amount of water consumption is constantly changing and no specific pattern for consumption can be considered. For this reason, with the increase or decrease in water consumption, the water pressure inside the pipes is constantly changing, and this change creates problems in water supply systems, such that a sudden increase in water pressure may cause damage to valves and pipes. and reducing the pressure will also cause water to cut in some parts of the city or buildings. A booster pump is usually used in a water pumping system to supply and regulate pressure.
Based on the above, it is very important to be careful in choosing and installing the pump, because the extra capacity of the selected pump causes additional costs and reduces the efficiency of the water pump system. will be, so choosing the right and optimal pump is very important.
In order to choose the right domestic water pump for a residential house, apartment, or villa, two important components should be considered first. These two important components are the height of water pump pressure or (H) and the efficiency of the water pump discharge or (Q)
Determining the pressure of the domestic water pump for a residential house or apartment:
To determine the required pressure of the water pump suitable for residential and office buildings, first, the number of floors in the house must be multiplied by the number 3. In fact, the number 3 is the height of the floor to the ceiling of each floor of the building. which determines the total height or pump head.
For example, if the desired building has five floors with a parking floor and an underground floor, the number of floors of this building is calculated as seven floors, and if it is multiplied by the number 3, the number will be twenty-one, which is the approximate height of the place. The water pump must be able to pump and transfer water from underground to the fifth floor. Now, in order to obtain the appropriate water pressure behind each faucet or consumption riser, add the number obtained by multiplying the number of floors of the building by the number 3 with the number 30, and as a result, a pressure of about 2 to 3 bars behind each We will have water taps on all floors.
For example, if we add the seven-story building in the example above, including the height from the underground to the sixth floor, which was 21 meters, and add it to the number 30 meters, the pressure that the selected water pump must provide is 51 meters or shows approximately 5 bar which is suitable for this height and creates the necessary pressure.
The maximum water pressure of the water distribution piping network, behind the sanitary ware valves, should not be more than 4 bar (40 meters of water column = 60 pounds per square inch) in the state of no flow.
One of the most important variables needed to determine the diameter of the pipes of the building’s plumbing system is the ” approximate water flow rate ” in the pipes. The minimum water required by humans depends on the life plan, individual needs, the number of family members, the needs of the garden, the garden, etc., and must be calculated using methods. Experience has shown that the size or smallness of the facility and its geographical location is important in determining this variable.
For an approximate and quick calculation of the consumption flow of the building, you can use the diagram. The amount of consumption estimated by this method is approximate and minimum consumption.
Amount of water consumption in different buildings :
As mentioned, the amount of water used in buildings is very different. In the table below, we will roughly check the appropriate amount of water for each part of the house.
Types of water pumps suitable for residential use?
Different companies design and produce different types of pumps that make household water pumps in different types such as jet water pumps, double impeller water pumps, plate water pumps, and environmental water pumps, which you can choose according to your needs. do.
One of the most popular pumps is the two-propeller or multi-stage water pump because it provides high pressure and flow for domestic applications and is very efficient. These pumps are ideal for medium to large homes and locations with long piping runs.
Domestic jet water pumps that are suitable for long suctions, these pump models are relatively less efficient.
Where should we install the domestic water pump?
In general, water pumps are made of different materials, and due to the fact that they are often installed on the ground, they are affected by sunlight, wind, and rain, and if they are made of low-quality materials, they are easily damaged. It is better to choose a model that is made of durable and quality materials.
Among the things that help the water pump to work as well as possible, increase the life of the pump, and thus increase the efficiency of the water pump, is the place and space where you place your water pump.
It is better that the place you choose to place the water pump is flat and level with the ground so that the pump does not vibrate during operation and causes less wear and tear.
Do not place the pump directly under the sun because the pump itself generates a certain amount of heat during its normal operation. If this heat becomes more than normal, it will cause malfunction. Also, place the electric pump in such a way that water is not splashed on the surface of the pump.
Do not attach the water pump to the wall and it is better to keep it about 15 cm away from the wall so that the surrounding environment is cooler and it can be serviced easily. Since the water pumps work automatically, it is better to install them in a place far from the bedroom so that the sound and vibrations caused by the operation of the pump do not affect your resting place.
What other devices should be used for the highest efficiency of the domestic water pump?
Using only a water pump is not enough. If you want to increase the water pressure of your residential or commercial place, you should also use other necessary devices with the water pump that increase the efficiency of the water pump. Among these devices, we can mention the water storage source, the water pressure source, and the control set, which we will mention below with their types and the correct selection of each one.
Water storage sources:
The amount of water storage determines the type of storage tank and economic comparison is a factor in choosing the type of tank. For example, a water tower can be built for any type of capacity, and ground concrete tanks are cheaper. As a result, after determining the necessary storage capacity and checking the technical issues, an economic comparison should be made between the types of storage tanks to find the right type from a technical and economic point of view. be specified
Water storage, if necessary and with approval, is done for the following purposes :
Preventing water cut-off in the building’s water distribution piping when the water coming from the city network to the building is cut off due to repair or other reasons.
So that the maximum amount of water consumption in the building is not transferred to the city water network.
Controlling the water pressure required for the water distribution piping of the building.
- Water distribution from top to bottom
- Zoning of water distribution in tall buildings
- In order to protect the urban water network
In residential buildings with more than 4 floors or more than ten apartment units, a water storage tank with a capacity of 12 hours of consumption, based on 150 liters per person per day, should be provided.
The water storage tank must be resistant to the effect of water.
If the water storage tank is steel, its internal and external surfaces must be galvanized.
If the water storage tank is non-galvanized or non-steel, its internal and external surfaces should be coated with suitable materials that do not affect the color, taste, smell, and pleasantness of the water and do not cause poisoning. The coating inside the tank should not contain lead materials.
The water storage tank must have a manhole so that internal inspection and repair are possible.
The valve on the water storage tank must be completely airtight when closed. This valve must be out of the reach of irresponsible persons and fully protected against the penetration of contaminated materials and insects and worms.
Sources under water pressure:
In order to prevent continuous disconnection and connection of constant speed pumps, sources under water pressure are used. These sources mainly include the pressurized source with compressed air cushion or nitrogen gas and the diaphragm source. Before the construction of diaphragm sources, sources under pressure with compressed air or nitrogen gas were used in the construction of booster pumps, but due to the merits of diaphragm sources, their use is almost obsolete now.
Water under pressure stored in the diaphragm source, in addition to creating more uniform water pressure in consumption, reduces the number of times the water pump is turned on and off. And as a result, the life of the water pump is significantly increased and its wear is reduced. The capacity of the source under diaphragm pressure is also determined and selected according to the number of building units and the amount of water consumption.
After connecting to the pump, according to its capacity, this tank permanently keeps a certain volume of water under pressure, in this way, when the water valve is opened until part of the source water under the diaphragm pressure is not used, the pump It is off and water is not pumped.
Therefore, if the source under diaphragm pressure is selected correctly and according to the number of units and the amount of water consumption, the pump will be turned on less often and this will reduce the noise pollution and reduce electricity consumption and increase the life of the pump.
These tanks are produced in capacities of 24, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 2000 liters, and above. It should be noted that choosing a higher volume of the source under the diaphragm pressure will be more favorable.
In order to use the water pump automatically and use the pressure switch, a source under diaphragm pressure must be used along with it.
For the automatic operation of the water pump, especially for domestic applications, installing the pump with a digital automatic switch or control setIt costs relatively less than installing a pump with a pressure switch and a source under diaphragm pressure.
In order to use the digital automatic switch in the water pump, it should be noted that the amount of opening and closing of the valves must be taken into account because every time a valve is opened and closed, the digital automatic switch will start the water pump and the pump will start. It works.
For this reason, to use a pump with a digital automatic switch, it should be noted that if valves are used a lot, instead of using a digital automatic switch, it is better to use a pressure switch and a source under diaphragm pressure.